# Advent of Code 2021 in Kotlin - Day 8 ## Introduction

The Day 8 problem is given with really long description that may frighten the reader at first. It explains the definition of 7-segment display which is commonly used in electronics and how its segments are ordered. What’s more important, it contains also some hints how we can look at the problem and what should be done to distinguish the digits from input.

## Solution

The first part of the problem is pretty straightforward so probably doesn’t need extra explanation.

The second part needs some deeper deduction that may require some explanation. What we vat to find in this part is to map the numbers shuffled representations to numbers (where all of them are shuffled in the same manner).

As stated in the problem description, we can deduce which are 1, 4, 7 and 8 numbers as they are build with the unique number of segments (respectively 2, 4, 3 and 7).

Next we can notice that the other numbers are built of 5 or 6 segments. So we can process every group separately and try to deuce each number using some helper function extract.

fun MutableSet<Digit>.extract(by: Digit, diff: Int) =
single { (it - by).segments.size == diff }.also { this -= it }


It takes the set of digits where all of them have the same number of segments and then finds the single digit for which, after removing the segments from set by, the number of segments is equal to diff. After that it also modifies the set of numbers by removing the returned digit from it.

First we notice, that for the numbers from group built of 5 segments when we remove the segments from 1, we will get only one set of segments of size 3, and it will correspond to the rest of the digit 3. So we write that

val three = fiveSeg.extract(one, 3)


and then also notice that for the rest of the numbers from set fiveSeg if we remove the segments from 4, we will get only one set of segments of size 3, that will correspond to the rest of digit 2, so we get

val two = fiveSeg.extract(four, 3)


and the only five segments digits that is left unprocessed is 5, so we can write

val five = fiveSeg.single()


The same process can be applied to the set of numbers that are built of 6 segments and we do it accordingly in code by

val sixSeg = seg!!.toMutableSet()
val nine = sixSeg.extract(four, 2)
val six = sixSeg.extract(one, 5)
val zero = sixSeg.single()


In this way we found the whole encoding of the numbers that can be returned as the map from digit representation to each of numbers from 0 to 9. Next, it’s enough to use this mapping and decode the outputs from the entry. We use fold here to calculate the number that is represented by the following digits - it’s not only much faster than working on strings or characters and calling the toInt function on the concatenated value, but also gives us the ability to practice the fold usage in action 😉.

### Day8.kt

object Day8 : AdventDay() {
override fun solve() {
val positions = reads<String>()?.map { it.toDigitsEntry() } ?: return

positions.sumOf { it.outputs.count(Digit::isEasy) }.printIt()
positions.sumOf { it.decode() }.printIt()
}
}

private fun String.toDigitsEntry() = split(" | ").map { part ->
part.split(" ").map { Digit(it.toSet()) }
}.let { (input, output) -> DigitsEntry(input, output) }

private data class Digit(val segments: Set<Char>) {
val isEasy = segments.size in setOf(2, 3, 4, 7)
operator fun minus(o: Digit) = Digit(segments - o.segments)
}

private data class DigitsEntry(val inputs: List<Digit>, val outputs: List<Digit>) {
fun decode(): Int = deduce().let { enc ->
outputs.fold(0) { acc, dig -> 10 * acc + enc[dig]!! }
}

private fun deduce(): Map<Digit, Int> {
val seg = inputs.toSet().groupBy { it.segments.size }
val one = seg!!.single()
val four = seg!!.single()
val seven = seg!!.single()
val eight = seg!!.single()

fun MutableSet<Digit>.extract(by: Digit, diff: Int) =
single { (it - by).segments.size == diff }.also { this -= it }

val fiveSeg = seg!!.toMutableSet()
val three = fiveSeg.extract(one, 3)
val two = fiveSeg.extract(four, 3)
val five = fiveSeg.single()

val sixSeg = seg!!.toMutableSet()
val nine = sixSeg.extract(four, 2)
val six = sixSeg.extract(one, 5)
val zero = sixSeg.single()

return listOf(zero, one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine)
.zip(0..9).toMap()
}
}


## Extra notes

Notice that we defined some operator fun for Digit class that is in Kotlin the implementation of the operator overloading. We define the subtract operation for this class as a difference of their sets of segments. In this way we can express our intention in Kotlin code more efficiently, using usually more readable operator syntax in different places, as we did in the definition of extract - it was so obvious what it is that you could even not notice that it’s an overloaded operator used in this place 😎. ###### Student of Computer Science

My interests include robotics (mainly with Arduino), mobile development for Android (love Kotlin) and Java SE/EE applications development.