# Advent of Code 2021 in Kotlin - Day 5

## Introduction

The Day 5 problem is the next one that can be really simple expressed using object-oriented programming techniques. To solve it, we propose some tricky Kotlin definitions for helpers that are really useful in the implementation of marking lines on the diagram.

## Helper definitions

### Generic DefaultMap<K, V>

We start with the pretty simple but really helpful definition of DefaultMap in Kotlin in just a few lines

class DefaultMap<K, V>(
private val default: V,
private val map: MutableMap<K, V> = HashMap()
) : MutableMap<K, V> by map {
override fun get(key: K): V = map.getOrDefault(key, default).also { map[key] = it }
}


In this short definition we have realized the whole implementation of MutableMap<K, V> interface as most of the functionalities are delegated to selected map that is a backing field in our implementation and can be customized if needed. What we can do more is even creating some lazy generator for default values - it wasn’t needed in today problem so was not written in this way. Anyway, the most important thing is to notice and remember that in Kotlin we don’t need to implement some functionalities from implemented interfaces because we can delegate the implementation to some specified objects that are able to realize given functionality with only single keyword by.

### Always working IntProgression

For standard ranges in Kotlin we have a restriction that it has to start on smaller value and finish on bigger or equal (just because in other case it’s empty). That makes a lot of sense when we define such ranges statically, using some values for which the order is known at compile time. The same applies for descending IntProgression that can be defined with downTo infix function.

In our case we don’t know if we should use rangeTo (i.e. .. operator) or downTo for points coordinates, so we can define some small but really useful helper function that can be represented as infix function

infix fun Int.directedTo(o: Int) = if (this <= o) this..o else this downTo o


that returns not empty IntProgression for any pair of points.

## Solution

We represent the points and lines as P and L data classes for simplicity of code. They are quite readable and allows us to keep the counts of marked points in Map<P, Int> because the hashCode and equals implementation are automatically generated for data classes in Kotlin.

Moreover, in the implementation of diagram we use some baking field to count the marked points as _m and then expose it as property of type Map<P, Int>. That’s because in Kotlin the mutability of collections is checked at compile time, based on their types, so in this way we can restrict mutability of _m outside of Diagram.

### Day5.kt

import kotlin.math.abs

object Day5 : AdventDay() {
override fun solve() {
val lines = reads<String>()?.map { it.toLine() } ?: return

Diagram().apply {
lines.filter { it.isVertical || it.isHorizontal }.forEach { markLine(it) }
marked.count { it.value > 1 }.printIt()
}
Diagram().apply {
lines.forEach { markLine(it) }
marked.count { it.value > 1 }.printIt()
}
}
}

private data class P(val x: Int, val y: Int)
private data class L(val from: P, val to: P) {
val isHorizontal = from.x == to.x
val isVertical = from.y == to.y
val isDiagonal = abs(from.y - to.y) == abs(from.x - to.x)
}

private fun String.toLine() = split(" -> ").map { p ->
p.split(",").let { (x, y) -> P(x.toInt(), y.toInt()) }
}.let { (f, t) -> L(f, t) }

private class Diagram {
private val _m = DefaultMap<P, Int>(0)
val marked: Map<P, Int> = _m

fun markLine(line: L) = with(line) {
when {
isVertical -> (from.x directedTo to.x).map { P(it, to.y) }
.forEach { _m[it] = _m[it] + 1 }
isHorizontal -> (from.y directedTo to.y).map { P(to.x, it) }
.forEach { _m[it] = _m[it] + 1 }
isDiagonal -> (from.x directedTo to.x).zip(from.y directedTo to.y)
.map { (x, y) -> P(x, y) }
.forEach { _m[it] = _m[it] + 1 }
else -> Unit
}
}
}


## Extra notes

What’s worth noting in this code too, are two usages of standard library inline functions i.e. with and apply. Both of them are used to simplify the statements with removing all calls to Diagram() or line as they become this receiver. As mentioned, these are the inline functions so this brings no overhead for execution - it’s just more readable code that allows use to simply select the methods called on some objects 😍.

###### Student of Computer Science

My interests include robotics (mainly with Arduino), mobile development for Android (love Kotlin) and Java SE/EE applications development.